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...Operations Manual

 

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FOR ADMINISTRATION RELATED INFORMATION REFER POLICY MANUAL

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Mil-Air does not force you to follow the company operations manual, but expects you to have an organized flight operations procedure. By understanding the general operations requirements detailed in this manual, your FS flying experience will be more authentic. - Mil-Air Ops

 


INDEX


OP-1 : Introduction

OP-1.a: Primary purpose of this manual is to provide a general guidance to all Mil-Air pilots regarding company Flight Operations Procedures. Operations Manual complements company Policy Manual with in depth coverage of flight operations related subjects.

OP-1.b: Operations instructions given in this manual may be altered to meet varying military requirements. It is important to realize flexibility is an essential part of efficient military operations.

OP-1.c: All Mil-Air aircraft shall be operated in accordance with operations requirements applicable to individual aircraft.

 

 [ INDEX ]

OP-2 : Standard Procedures

OP-2.a: Check Lists

Complete a standard cockpit check list related to individual aircraft.

Note: Pilots are allowed to prepare their own check lists, which confirm to different aircraft types.

Check list shall include Pre-departure, In-flight, Before landing and Enroute transit sections.

# SAMPLE CHECK LIST

Before Engine Start

Bofore Taxing

Before Take-off

Climb/Cruise

Parking brakes- On

Auto pilot data- Set

Flaps- Set for take-off

Landing lights- Off

Anti collision lights- On

Spoilers- Retracted

Trim- Set for take-off

Flaps- Retract

Fuel status- Check

NAV/GPS- Set

Flight controls- Check all

Auto pilot data- Check

Flight plan- Review

Anti-ice- Set / As required

ASI/Altimeter- Set

NAV/GPS data- Check

Mission log- Prepare

Departure data- Review

Strobe/Landing lights- On

Fuel status- Check

Pre Descent

Before Landing

After landing

Shut down

Approach data- Review

Landing gear- 3 greens

Strobes/Landing lights- Off

Parking brakes- On

ASI/Altimeter- Set

Flaps- Set for landing

Flaps- Retract

Throttles- Idle for 1 min

Fuel status- Check

Altimeter- Set

Spoilers- Retract

Anti-ice- Off

Auto pilot data- Check

Landing lights- On

Trim- Zero

Anti-Collision lights- Off

Mission log- Update

Landing data- Review

GPS- Off

Mission log- Complete

OP-2.b: General Safety Notices

OP-3 : Flight Procedures

 

OP-3.a: Auto-Pilot Altitude Alerts

Before take-off : Set initially intended altitude

During climb, cruise and descent : Set intended sector altitude

During before landing check : Set missed approach altitude

OP-3.b: Rejected Take-off

Rejecting a take-off at speed approaching V1 is an emergency procedure. Establish a RTO procedure by evaluating available runway length. If the warning horn sounds during take-off up to V1, the take-off must be rejected.

OP-3.c: Noise Abatement

Use idle reverser whenever it is operationally feasible and particularly between the hours of 2300-0700 local time.

In the interest of noise abatement and subject to performance requirements, a rolling take-off is preferable to a brake release start.

Utilize all available runway, rather than an 'intersection' take-off, whenever headed over a noise sensitive area.

Note: Take-off from runway intersections is allowed provided it does not violate above noise abatement requirement and the required take-off runway length is available.

OP-3.d: Take-off Obstacle Clearance

This is defined as the altitude (ASL) to climb to, with an engine failure before levelling off for flap retraction.

To achieve an acceptable clearance over obstacles, the obstacle altitude is rounded off to nearest 50 feet and then 150 feet is added to allow for altimeter and temperature errors. This altitude is an ASL altitude at which the highest obstacle in the take-off can be cleared safely during acceleration to flap retraction speeds.

Ex: Obstacle Height: 626' = 650+150 = 800' (ASL) Obst. Clearance Altitude

OP-3.e: Turns After Take-off

Pilots are expected to follow Standard Instrument Departures (SID) when ever possible.

Shallow turns not to exceed 15 deg. of bank, may be commenced not below 100' after take-off, having due regard for turbulence.

Turns not exceeding 25 deg. of bank may be made at a minimum of 400' above terrain when required, having due regard for turbulence and terrain.

It is permissible to raise flaps during turns, provided speed and/or configuration restrictions are complied with, for individual aircraft type.

OP-3.f: Rate of Climb and Descent

Establish a positive rate-of-climb, consistent with aircraft performance, before crossing runway threshold after take-off.

Climb/descend as rapidly as practicable, until 1000' below/above the intended altitude, then not in excess of 500ft/min for the remaining 1000'.

OP-3.g: Aircraft Trimming

The following is a trimming procedure for all swept wing jet aircraft. Do not rush trim procedure. Allow time for the aircraft to stabilize after each trim change.

1) In cruise, set up a stable condition on a constant heading. Fuel loading and thrust must be symmetrical. Zero the rudder and aileron trim.

2) Ensure that the wings are level with no rudder input.

3) Carefully trim out any turning tendency on the HSI with rudder trim. Make sure wings are still level.

4) Slowly take out any residual aileron load, with aileron trim. Further minor rudder adjustments may be necessary to ensure a constant heading.

OP-3.h: Approaches

Autopilot maybe engaged for any approach. It may be used for ILS front course, localizer only and VOR approaches.

Autopilot should be OFF for ADF/PAPI approaches and back course ILS.

If a glide path is intercepted some distance away from the runway, normal speeds should be maintained. The aircraft should be slowed down and initial flap introduced not less than 4 miles from Final Approach Fix (FAF).

The Procedure Turn for ADF, ILS including back course and VOR approaches will normally be started one minute from the fix for a no wind condition. If a tailwind is present outbound, timing should be less than one minute. If a headwind is present outbound, timing may be extended up to 1 1/2 minutes.

The basic timing for the turn is 45 seconds. When drift is present, add or subtract two seconds for each degree of drift.

During approach VOR and NDB receivers may be tuned as following.

#1 VOR Receiver - ILS/Localizer or Airport VOR

#2 VOR Receiver - Airport VOR or missed approach VOR

ADF receiver - Approach path NDB or Airport NDB

Sample Auto/ILS approach : Auto/ILS approach to runway 24L, Call go- around or landing at Decision Height (DH) 450', if go-around climb to 3000' on a track of 240 deg before turning down wind.

Sample NDB approach : ADF approach for runway 24R, Call go- around or landing at Minimum Decision Altitude (MDA) 500', if go-around climb to 2500' on a track of 238 deg before turning left to TM beacon.

OP-3.i: Touch & Go and Landing

Touch & Go landings without selecting reverser may be performed during training flights.

Touch & Go manoeuvre is not approved for regular missions.

Go Around should never be considered after thrust reverser has been selected.

Execute a missed approach if,

1) In ILS approach no runway contact is made at Minimum Altitude.

2) In visual approach contact is made after reaching FAF.

For landing make sure to align with runway by 500', Flare at 50' and roll out at 5'.

For go-around advance throttles smoothly but quickly to Go-around N1. Select 'Gear Up' in positive climb and retract flaps to climb position.

OP-3.j: Engine Failure

Ensure power levers are set to max power.

Fly the aircraft for a speed that allow best angle and climb rate, depending on the phase of flight.

Ensure landing gear and flaps are retracted, depending on the phase of flight.

Identify the failed engine.

Land in the nearest airport.

 

 [ INDEX ]

OP-4 : Navigation Procedures

OP-4.a: Check the Operation of VOR and ADF Receivers

Tune receivers to an available station.

Check identification and flags.

For ADF check bearings.

For VOR rotate track arrows to tail of the RMI needles, check the track bar center (+/-4 deg) and RMI needles & TO/FROM arrows sense correctly. Check the track bars for maximum deflection +/-10 deg either side of center.

OP-4.b: ADF and VOR Procedures

NOTE: If the VOR receiver is tuned to an ILS facility, never set the track arrow to other than the ILS course.

In ADF procedures the terms 'Inbound Track' and 'Outbound Track' are used.

In VOR procedures the term 'Radial' is used. A radial is defined as a magnetic track from a VOR station. On an RMI the aircraft's radial is always read off the tail of the needle. Although Radial is equivalent to Outbound Track, it is used to specify both inbound and outbound track. Ex: Cleared to hold on a radial of 300deg., the aircraft's inbound track is 120deg.

 

INBOUND: To intercept and fly a specific radial or ADF track inbound to the station:

Tune in and identify the station. Select RMI to VOR or ADF as required. Note bearing to the station.

OP-4.c: Holding Procedures

VOR holding patterns are designated as radials, i.e. if cleared to hold a radial of 300, the pattern is NW of VOR on an inbound track of 120deg.

ADF holding patterns are normally designated as inbound tracks and instructions in some cases include a magnetic direction from the holding fix, i.e. 'hold southwest'.

It is essential to slow the aircraft to holding speed before passing the holding fix. Use 25deg of bank for normal hold.

If available ADF or VOR should be used to full advantage in a holding pattern.

 

VOR SLANT RANGE CORRECTION

HEIGHT ABOVE DME

29,000 FT

31,000 FT

33,000 FT

35,000 FT

37,000 FT

39,000 FT

CORRECT

DME MORE THAN

23.0nm

26.0nm

29.7nm

33.4nm

37.3nm

41.4nm

0nm

BETWEEN

8.3-23.0nm

9.4-26.0nm

10.6-29.7nm

11.8-33.4nm

13.1-37.3nm

14.5-41.4nm

-1nm

BETWEEN

6.0-8.3nm

6.4-9.4nm

7.1-10.6nm

7.9-11.6nm

8.7-13.1nm

9.5-14.5nm

-2nm

BETWEEN

5-6nm

5.5-6.4nm

6-7.1nm

6.5-7.9nm

7-8.7nm

7.6-9.5nm

-3nm

 

OP-4.d: INS/GPS Procedures

Before using INS/GPS for navigational guidance, verify the waypoints loaded are coincident with the mission, and confirm both track and distance for each segment.

Determine WPT passage by comparison of INS/GPS readouts with radio aids - NDBs, VORs DMEs. Accuracy of INS/GPS should be checked at frequent intervals. Particularly prior to extended flights under INS/GPS guidance.

Example: Aircraft is at FL310 is passing north of 'Fort Chimo' (N58 05.8 W68 25 7)

Required radial for 360T is 034M (variation from nav. chart 34W)

DME reading when crossing 034 radial is 18 nm.

Correct DME reading for slant range (if necessary) to determine latitude adjustment. By using above chart, correcting for slant range of 18 nm at FL310 puts aircraft about 17 nm North of DME.

Aircraft position is about N58 22.8 W68 25.7

Flights without INS/GPS operation

1) Disconnect autopilot from INS/GPS.

2) Enter only on routes, which can be navigated with reference to radio facilities.

3) Estimate drift and fly headings as necessary to maintain track as accurately as possible until radio navigation is possible.

 

 [ INDEX ]

ICAO PHONETIC ALPHABET AND NUMBERS

Letter / Number

Code

Word

Pronunciation

A

. _

Alfa

AL FAH

B

_ . . .

Bravo

BRAH VOH

C

_ . _ .

Charlie

CHAR LEE

D

_ . .

Delta

DELL TAH

E

.

Ecoh

ECK OH

F

. . _ .

Foxtrot

FOKS TROT

G

_ _ .

Golf

GOLF

H

. . . .

Hotel

HOH TELL

I

. .

India

IN DEE AH

J

. _ _ _

Juliett

JEW LEE ETT

K

_._

Kilo

KEY LOH

L

. _ . .

Lima

LEE MAH

M

_ _

Mike

MIKE

N

_ .

November

NO VEM BER

O

_ _ _

Oscar

OSS CAH

P

. _ _ .

Papa

PAH PAH

Q

_ _ . _

Quebec

KEH BECK

R

. _ .

Romeo

ROW ME OH

S

. . .

Sierra

SEE AIR RAH

T

_

Tango

TANG GO

U

. . _

Uniform

YOU NEE FORM

V

. . . _

Victor

VIK TAH

W

. _ _

Whiskey

WISS KEY

X

_ . . _

X-ray

ECKS RAY

Y

_ . _ _

Yankee

YANG KEY

Z

_ _ . .

Zulu

ZOO LOO

1

. _ _ _ _

One

WUN

2

. . _ _ _

Two

TOO

3

. . . _ _

Three

TREE

4

. . . . _

Four

FOWer

5

. . . . .

Five

FIVE

6

_ . . . .

Six

SIX

7

_ _ . . .

Seven

SEVen

8

_ _ _ . .

Eight

AIT

9

_ _ _ _ .

Nine

NINer

0

_ _ _ _ _

Zero

ZE RO

[ INDEX ]

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